CONSTITUTION (Revised 1998) 

ARTICLE I: Name and Seal

I(1). The Federation shall be known as THE FEDERATION OF THE ASIAN AND OCEANIAN PHYSIOLOGICAL SOCIETIES and shall have an abbreviation as FAOPS.

I(2). The Federation shall have a seal which consists of the device of a circle with the letters FAOPS arranged inside a map showing only contours of Asia and Oceania in the center surrounded by the words “FEDERATION OF THE ASIAN AND OCEANIAN PHYSIOLOGICAL SOCIETIES 1990” arranged within the perimeter.

I(3). The legal seat of the Federation is at the Secretariat Office.

ARTICLE II: Purposes

The purpose of the Federation are exclusively scientific, educational, literary, and no other, and in furtherance of only those purposes, the particular business and objectives of said Federation shall be;

(a) to encourage the advancement of the physiological Sciences,

(b) to facilitate the exchange and dissemination of knowledge in the field of physiological sciences and related fields,

(c) to foster and encourage research in the field of physiological sciences in Asia and Oceania,

(d) to promote the Congress of the Federation of the Asian and Oceanian Physiological Societies (FAOPS Congress),

(e) to promote such other measures as will contribute to the development of physiological sciences in Asia and Oceania.

ARTICLE III: Composition of the Federation

III(1). The Federation shall be composed of member of organizations which in turn may be physiological societies or other societies of scientists in related fields. Groups of physiologists still unestablished as organization in Asian and Oceanic countries are also eligible for memberships provided that their applications are approved by the General Assembly.

III(2). The Federation shall have a General Assembly which is its deliberative body and shall be composed of a Council and delegates, which are representatives of member societies.

ARTICLE IV: Membership

IV (I). The Federation shall consist of the following members;

- regular members

- associate members

- supporting members

- honorary members

IV (2). Regular and associate members are physiological societies or other societies of related fields, and group of physiological scientists in Asian and Oceanic countries. Each regular member shall pay annual dues at a rate determined by every four years by the General Assembly upon recommendation by the Council.

Associate members shall pay a nominal dues as determined by the Council. They may send observers without votes to the meeting of the General Assembly.

IV(3). Supporting members are commercial companies, foundations or other bodies who wish to contribute financially to the Federation.

Membership will be obtained by invitation from the President or the Secretary and upon recommendation of the Council. A supporting member shall pay an annual subscription to the Federation at the amount determined by the Council.

IV (4). Honorary members are individuals who have made outstanding contribution to physiological sciences and to the objectives and the work of the Federation. Upon recommendation of the Council an individual may be elected Honorary member by a two-third majority votes of the delegates to the General Assembly.

ARTICLE V: General Assembly

V(1). The membership of the General Assembly shall consist of delegates appointed by each regular member; the officers of the Federation and the other members of Council. In addition to discharging such duties as may be prescribed by the Constitution and By-Laws of the Federation, the General Assembly shall act as an advisory body in matters pertaining to the general management of the Federation.

V(2). The number of Delegates representing a regular member shall be related to the number of physiologists represented by the regular member as set forth in the By-Laws. The number of physiologists claimed by a member is subject to review by the General Assembly.

V(3). The President and Secretary of the Federation shall be the Chairman and Secretary, respectively, of the General Assembly.

V(4). There shall be regular meetings of the General Assembly at such times as the Congress of the Federation shall meet. In any session of the General Assembly, one third of the delegates shall constitute a quorum.

V(5). The term of a Delegate to the General Assembly shall be determined by the member society which he (she) represents and the term of each Delegate shall be considered continuing until a new Delegate is appointed by the member societies of the Federation. The appointment of a new Delegate should be reported to the Secretary at least two months in advance of the meeting of the General Assembly.

V(6). Decision in the following matters requires a two-thirds majority of the General Assembly :

a) admission of members,

b) expiration of membership,

c) changing the Constitution or By-Laws,

d) adopting a new Constitution or By-Laws,

V(7). Selection of the location for a FAOPS Congress shall be determined by majority vote of the General Assembly. This decision can be altered by Council only in case of an emergency occurring between meetings of the General Assembly or when there is evidence that the host society or country is unable to support the Congress.


VI(1). The Council, to be elected by the General Assembly, shall be composed of twelve individuals, all of whom shall be members of societies representing regular members of the Federation. However, the first Council shall be nominated. Five of the eleven individuals shall be the officers of the Federation.

VI(2). With the exception of the officers, there shall be no more than one member of the Council from any one society. The elected Council members shall be elected as individuals and not as society or national representatives. Council members are not, therefore, entitled to nominate others to represent them or vote for them in their absence.

VI(3). As the legal representative of the Federation, the Council shall have, hold and administer all the property, funds, and affairs of the Federation. With the exception of the Secretary and Treasurer, the Council members shall take office immediately after the election.

VI(4). The term of office shall be for four years and no Council member may serve more than two consecutive terms, except that they may serve a third term if elected as an officer.

VI(5). The Council may recommend appropriate action in matters reserved under V(6) for final decision by the General Assembly.

VI(6). There shall be a regular meeting of the Council at the same time as the FAOPS Congress shall meet. Additional meetings, to be called special meetings, may be convened by the officers at any time. A special meeting must be called on written demand of the majority of the Council members.

VI(7). The Council shall fill any vacancies occurring on the Council between meetings of the General Assembly, and the individuals so appointed by the Council shall serve for the unexpired term of the individuals whose position they have filled. The individuals filling the vacancy may be elected to one additional term on the Council.


VII(1). The officers of the Federation shall be a President, a Past-President, a First-and Second-Vice Presidents, a Treasurer, and a Secretary. These officers, except the Past-President and Second-Vice President, shall be elected by a majority vote of the General Assembly.

VII(2). The Past-President shall be the President whose term is expired and/or, by the rule, cannot be renewed. The term of the Past-President is four years.

VII(3). The Second-Vice President shall be the President, or the Chairman of the local organizing committee, of the host society for the next Congress.

VII(4). The duties of the officers shall be such as usually pertain to the offices they hold and, in addition, any other duties as may be assigned by the General Assembly or Council.

VII(5). The First-Vice President shall fulfill the duties of the President should the President become unable to discharge them. Should the First-Vice President be unable to function as President, the Second-Vice President should fulfill these duties.

VII(6). The officers shall be elected for a term of four years, and shall not be eligible for more than two consecutive terms. An officer appointed to fill a vacancy occurring between meetings of the General Assembly shall hold office for the unexpired term and may be elected one more term.

VII(7). Consecutive service as an ordinary member of the Council and as an officer shall not exceed 12 years. When either a Treasurer and/or Secretary are elected by the General Assembly, their predecessors shall continue in office until 31 December next after the election, unless the General Assembly shall decide otherwise.

ARTICLE VIII: Commissions

Council shall recommend the establishment of Commissions dealing with specific aspects of physiological sciences, subject to the approval of the General Assembly. The duties of such commissions shall be as set forth in the By-Laws.

ARTICLE IX: Other Associations

The Federation shall endeavour to be closely associated with the International Union of Physiological Sciences.

ARTICLE X: Finances

X(1). Each regular member shall pay annual dues to the Federation at a rate determined every four years by the General Assembly upon recommendation by Council.

X(2). Any constituent member which fails to pay annual dues for two consecutive years shall be warned by the Treasurer and its delegates shall by that fact be thereupon deprived of the right to vote. Any constituent member whose subscription is in arrears for three years shall be reported by the Treasurer to the next meeting of Council, and the termination of the membership shall be considered by the Council.

X(3). In the event a member should resign or cancel its membership, or be requested on the vote of the General Assembly to resign, or its membership is terminated by article X(2), such funds received from that member as are allocable to the current or former years shall be retained by the Federation.

X(4). The financial year of the Federation shall be from January 1 to December 31 inclusive. All memberships shall be renewable and dues payable as of January 1. All new members shall be liable for their dues for the ensuing year on the first day of January after their election.

X(5). If necessary, the Federation may provide a partial financial support as seed money to promote the organization of its Congress. This decision shall be made by the Council.

X(6). In event of dissolution or termination of the Federation, title to and possession of all the property of the Federation shall pass forthwith to such organization dedicated to similar purposes and the General Assembly of the Federation shall deem best qualified to carry on the functions of the Federation.

ARTICLE XI: Dissolution

The Federation shall be dissolved by the General Assembly. The decision of which requires a two-thirds majority of the quorum constituting two-thirds of the regular members.


The above constitution shall become effective with the formation of the Federation at the Second Congress of the Asian and Oceanian Physiological Societies in November 1990.


ARTICLE I: Elections

I(1). A Nominating Committee, which consists of not less than 5 members, shall be appointed by Council not less than 6 months in advance of the meeting of the General Assembly.

I(2). The Nominating Committee shall propose a list of candidates, one for each position on Council (including officers), having ensured that each nominee is willing to serve. This list should be distributed to every member of the General Assembly at least 2 months in advance of the meeting.

I(3). The names of additional candidates shall be added to the list if their nomination is approved by at least one-third of the Delegates present at the General Assembly.

ARTICLE II: Meetings

II(1). At least two months in advance of a meeting of the General Assembly or the Council, the Secretary shall notify society members of the Federation or the individual members of the Council, of the date and place of such a meeting, and such notice shall further set forth a proposed agenda of the meeting.

II(2). Delegates not appointed at least one month in advance of the meeting of the General Assembly must be approved by majority vote of the General Assembly before they are entitled to vote.

II(3). Unless specifically provided otherwise in the Statutes, half of the membership of the General Assembly, of the Council, and of the Executive Committee shall constitute a quorum, and the decision made by these bodies shall be by simple majority of the members present and entitled to vote. In case of a tie vote, there will be a second vote. The Chairman of the meeting shall have a vote, and a further (casting) vote when there is a second tie.

ARTICLE III: Number of Delegates

The number of Delegates to the General Assembly shall be determined by the following rules :

for up to 100 physiologists 1 delegate

for 101-300 physiologists 2 delegates

for 301-600 physiologists 3 delegates

for 601-1000 physiologists 4 delegates

for 1001 or more physiologists 5 delegates

ARTICLE IV: Commissions

IV(1). The Council shall appoint a chairman of each commission to serve for four years, renewable. The Chairman shall, in turn, select members of the commission with adequate international representation subject to the approval of Council. Such commissions shall assist the Organizing Committee of a Congress in the generation of the Congress program and shall fulfill the aims and objectives of Commissions as defined by the Council.

IV(2). The Federation shall provide initial organizational expenses and sustaining fundings. The funds in possession of such commission shall be the property of the Federation and shall be accounted for annually.

ARTICLE V: Finances

V(1). When the Federation provides a partial financial support to its Congress, a return of the seed money from the organizer is required provided that a surplus is made.

V(2). The Federation shall receive 5 per cent of the registration fee of its Congress from the organizer.

ARTCLE VI: Admission of Members

VI(1). A qualified candidate for membership shall submit a letter of intent to the Secretary, who in turn recommends to the Council for admission.

VI(2). Admission of all categories of members by the Council shall be reported to the General Assembly at its regular meeting.

ARTICLE VII: Expiration of Memberships

VII(1). Memberships shall be terminated by;

a) failures to pay annual dues for three consecutive years, except the Council recommend otherwise;

b) a letter of resignation by the member submitted to the Secretary.

VII(2). Termination of all categories of membership shall be recommended by the Council to the General Assembly for approval. LISTS OF MEMBERSHIP

1. Regular Members

1. The Australian Physiological Society (AuPS)

2. The Chinese Association for Physiological Sciences (CAPS)

3. The Federation of Indian Physiological Societies (FIPS)

4. The Iranian Physiology and Pharmacology Society (IPPS)

5. The Israel Society of Physiology and Pharmacology (ISPP)

6. The Japanese Physiological Society (JPS)

7. The Korean Physiological Society (KPS)

8. The Malaysian Society of Pharmacology and Physiology (MSPP)

9. The Physiological Society located in Taipei, China (PSC)

10. The Physiological Society of New Zealand (PSNZ)

11. The Physiological Society of Thailand (PST)

12. The Physiology Association of United Arab Emirate (PUAE)

2. Associate Members

1. The Indonesian Physiological Society (IPS)

2. The Physiology & Biochemistry Subsection Myanmar Medical Association (PBMMA)

3. The Physiological Society of Pakistan (PSP)

4. The Physiological Society of the Philippines (PSPh)

5. The Physiology Society of Sri Lanka (PSSL)

6. The Physiological Society of Vietnam (PSV)

History of the Foundation of FAOPS

The initiative idea to formulate an international organization of physiologists in Asia and Pacific was originated by Profs. Thirayudh Glinsukon and Chumpol Pholpramool, who were then the President and Secretary General of the Physiological Society of Thailand, respectively, when the Thai society organized the 1Ist Congress of the Asian and Oceanian Physiological Societies (AOPS) in Bangkok in November 1986. A consensus was reached by delegates from 11 national societies to join in an international body to be known as Federation of the Asian and Oceanian Physiological Societies (FAOPS), and Prof. Pholpramool was requested to prepare the draft of the Constitution and By-laws, which was later accepted at the time of IUPS Congress in Helsinki in 1989. At this meeting a nominating committee comprising Profs. M. Ito, B.K. Anand, J.I. Hubbard, M.T. Lin, E-Up Chae and C. Pholpramool was appointed to propose candidates for council members.

The third meeting of the delegates was held at the time of the 2nd AOPS Congress in New delhi in November 1990 when the present Constitution and By-Laws and the first Council were approved. FAOPS is, therefore, officially functioning as of November 1990.

List of the first FAOPS Council

Officers :

President M.Ito (Japan)

First-Vice President S .K.Manchanda (India)

Second-Vice President X.L. Yang (China)

Treasurer C..Y.Chai (Taipei, China)

Secretary C.Pholpramool (Thailand)

Members :

J.I. Hubbard (New Zedland)

W.G. Kim (Korea)

F. Motamedi (Iran)

R. Rahamimoff (Israel)

H.J. Singh (Malaysia)

J.A. Young (Australia)